He was forced out by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars, first in 1799, and then after the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801), becoming instead Elector of Salzburg, ruling the territory of the former archbishopric. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. At the death of her grandfather Francesco Maria della Rovere, she inherited the duchy of Urbino which reverted to her second son, Francesco Maria, at her death. Cosimo contemplated restoring the Republic of Florence, [5] [38] a decision that was complicated by the Grand Duchy's feudal status: Florence was an Imperial fief, Siena a Spanish one. He was elected Holy Roman Emperor in 1745. The Spanish reaction was to construct a citadel on their portion of the island of Elba. [37] Europe heard of the perils of Tuscany, and Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor asserted a remote claim to the grand duchy (through some Medici descent), but died before he could press the matter. Tuscany then ceded its Lunigiana territories to Modena with the exception of Pontremoli which passed to the Duchy of Parma. [20] Ferdinando's pro-Papal foreign policy, however, had drawbacks. [41] On July 9 1737, Gian Gastone died; the last male Medici of the Grand Ducal line. It was conquered by the Romans 280 BC. Married Eleanor of Toledo (1522 – 1562) daughter of Don Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, Marquis of Villafranca. Leopold felt obliged to espouse Austria's cause. [8] Cosimo also was a long-term supporter of Pope Pius V, who in the light of Florence's expansion in August 1569 declared Cosimo Grand Duke of Tuscany, a title unprecedented in Italy. Torture was also banned. Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) Holy Roman Emperor from 1745 and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1737. The arrival of Napoleon Bonaparte meant the rule of the grand dukes was interrupted for approximately 20 years. script.setAttribute("onerror", "setNptTechAdblockerCookie(true);"); A patron of the arts, she bequeathed the Medici's large art collection, including the contents of the Uffizi, Palazzo Pitti and the Medicean villas, which she inherited upon her brother Gian Gastone's death in 1737, and her Palatine treasures to the Tuscan state, on the condition that no part of it could be removed from "the Capital of the grand ducal State....[and from] the succession of His Serene Grand Duke.". The oldest surviving son of the Duke of Lorraine, Francis left the duchy for the deposed Polish king Stanisław Leszczyński in exchange for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany as one of the terms ending the War of the Polish Succession in 1738. The Grand Duke was an Austrian ; but the policy of the government has long bean distinguished for its liberality and efficiency. Grand Duchy of Tuscany. The constitution was revoked in 1852. Francis' second surviving son Peter Leopold became grand duke of Tuscany and ruled the country until his brother Joseph's death. Their union wrought a high level of discontentment, but despite the tension they had three children, Ferdinando, Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici, Electress Palatine and the last Medicean grand duke of Tuscany, Gian Gastone de' Medici. His wife, Eleanor of Toledo, died in 1562, along with four of his children due to a plague epidemic in Florence. Francis had to cede his ancestral Duchy of Lorraine in order to accommodate the deposed ruler of Poland, whose daughter Marie Leszczyńska became Queen of France and of Navarre in 1725. "true" : "false") + "; expires=" + d.toUTCString() + "; path=/"; Fortezza Vecchia changed its function to the coming of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine in 1737, by a defensive structure to a military college for officers of the Army of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1769) and afterwards in garrison (1795). Cosimo's 53-year-long reign, the longest in Tuscan history, was marked by a series of ultra-reactionary laws which regulated prostitution and banned May celebrations. In Tuscany, Leopold II sanctioned a liberal constitution; and instituted a liberal ministry. He was succeeded by his elder surviving son, Gian Gastone, when he died, in 1723. [2] The grand duchy's capital was Florence. [16] To augment the Tuscan silk industry, he oversaw the planting of Mulberry trees along the major roads (silk worms feed on Mulberry leaves). A provisional government was formed on 27 April and the duchy joined with the Duchies of Modena and Parma in Dec 1859 to form th… [36] Meanwhile, the state's capital, Florence, had become full of beggars. Gian Gastone de' Medici was the seventh and last Medicean Grand Duke of Tuscany. Population, 20,000. Tuscany was overcome with religious orders, all of whom were not obliged to pay taxes. The document in question was officiated on the 27th of that month. When Cosimo died, his oldest son, Ferdinando, was still a minor. This left his eldest son, Francesco, to rule the duchy. The Tuscan Civil War almost immediately followed, with royalist and democratic forces fighting the Red Brigades of the Tuscan Communist Party. Vallombrosa, Prato, Pistoja, Pescia, Volterra, and Signa, are places of some consideration, within a short distance of Florence. These deaths were to affect him greatly, which, along with illness, forced Cosimo to unofficially abdicate in 1564. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants. The Peace of Villafranca allowed Leopold to return once more. It was conquered by Napoleonic France in the late 18th century and became part of the Italian Republic in the 19th century. A provisional republic was established in his stead. He died at Innsbruck from a stroke in 1765; his wife pledged the rest of her life to mourning him, while co-ruling with her son, and Francis' imperial successor Joseph II. Together they had two children: Cosimo, in 1642, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, in 1660. Charlemagne conquered Tuscany, but under his feeble successors its princes made the country independent. His reign also witnessed Tuscany's deterioration to previously unknown economic lows. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. State flag of Tuscany 1849-1860. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (or Granducato di Toscana in Italian) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. [54] The Council of Two Hundred was a petitions court; membership was for life. [43] Smallpox vaccination was made systematically available (Leopold's mother Maria Theresa had been a huge supporter on inoculation against smallpox), and an early institution for the rehabilitation of juvenile delinquents was founded. After the fall of that empire it successively belonged to the Goths and Lombards, by the last of which it was erected into a duchy. Leopold was contemporarily acknowledged as a liberal monarch. [14] He was succeeded by Ferdinando de' Medici, his younger brother, whom he loathed. [18] Francesco and Ferdinando, due to lax distinction between Medici and Tuscan state property, are thought to be wealthier than their ancestor, Cosimo de' Medici, the founder of the dynasty. Cosimo also was a long-term supporter of Pope Pius V, who in the light of Florence's expansion in … The former Kingdom of Italy and the current Italian Republic also did not recognize the order as a legal entity but tolerates it as a private body. ... 14:25. It peaked under Cosimo III. Manuscript from 1754 with stamps, found in a drawer. The Grand Duchy o Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Laitin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) wis a central Italian monarchy that exeestit, wi interruptions, frae 1569 tae 1859, replacin the Duchy o Florence. Italian States, Grand Duchy of Tuscany. var d = new Date(); Marie's father Stanisław I of Poland ruled Lorraine as compensation for his loss of the Kingdom of Poland. Ferdinando was heir to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, with the title Grand Prince, from his father's accession in 1670 until his death in 1713. House of Commons –, The Papal Bull that created the Grand Duchy, Patria del Friuli (Patriarchate of Aquileia), Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states, Museum of the Risorgimento (Castelfidardo). The Order of Saint Stephen is a Roman Catholic Tuscan dynastic military order founded in 1561. File:Map Kingdom of Etruria.jpg. Christina heavily relied on priests as advisors, lifting Cosimo I's ban on clergy holding administrative roles in government, and promoted monasticism. [11]. It was conquered by the Romans 280 BC. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Italian: Granducato di Toscana, Latin: Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a monarchy in Tuscany, an area in the north-west of the Italian Peninsula.It existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859. }, Page last modified: Moralistic Democracy. Violante Beatrice loved him but Ferdinando did not return her affection, declaring her too ugly and too dull. In December 1859, the Grand Duchy was joined to the Duchies of Modena and Parma to form the United Provinces of Central Italy, which were annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia a few months later. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an independent and sovereign state in 1776 when the United States declared independence from Great Britain. They were divided because the stato nuovo was a Spanish fief and the stato vecchio an Imperial one. Vittoria della Rovere was Grand Duchess of Tuscany as the wife of Grand Duke Ferdinando II. The population amounted to about 1,600,000, or 190 to the square mile. He continued his father's Austrian/Imperial alliance, cementing it by marrying Johanna of Austria. The order was created by Cosimo I de' Medici, first Grand Duke of Tuscany. [22] His mother and grandmother arranged a marriage with Vittoria della Rovere, a granddaughter of the Duke of Urbino, in 1634. The Duke of Lucca decided to abdicate his throne in favor of the Grand Duke of Tuscany Leopoldo II, while the Lucca territories of Montignoso, Gallicano, Minucciano and Castiglione di Garfagnana were given to Modena. The Arch-Duchy of Tuscany (Toscana, now part of Italy) was created in 1569 when Cosimo de' Medici, Duke of Florence, was made Arch Duke of Tuscany by Pope Pius V. In 1737 the territory became a possession of Duke Franz III of Lotharingen, and hence a possession of the Habsburg family. [55], Over time, the Medici acquired several territories, which included: the County of Pitigliano, purchased from the Orsini family in 1604; the County of Santa Fiora, acquired from the House of Sforza in 1633; Spain ceded Pontremoli in 1650, Silvia Piccolomini sold her estates, the Marquisate of Castiglione at the time of Cosimo I, Lordship of Pietra Santa, and the Duchy of Capistrano and the city of Penna in the Kingdom of Naples. Elba, and several other islands in the Mediterranean belonged to Tuscany. Habsburg Grand Dukes of Tuscany Grand Dukes of Tuscany 1737-1801 Francis Stephen of Lorraine (1708-1765) as Grand Duke of Tuscany. @media only screen and (min-device-width : 320px) and (max-device-width : 480px) { Ferdinand was the son of the incumbent Grand Duke, and Grand Duchess Maria Louisa. 11:27. The two areas were governed by separate laws. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1569−1859) — located in the Tuscany region of the Italian Peninsula. Pisa, an ancient but now decayed city, the capital of a sovereign republic in the middle ages, and the great rival of Genoa, is situated on the right bank of the Arno, near its mouth. With the exception of its literary institutions and numerous antiquities, Pisa has no modern attractions. By 1705, the grand ducal treasury was virtually bankrupt, and the population of Florence had declined by approximately 50%, while the population of the entire grand duchy had decreased by an estimated 40%. During the Holy League of 1571, Cosimo fought against the Ottoman Empire, siding with the Holy Roman Empire. [14], Ferdinando eagerly assumed the government of Tuscany. Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg was the legal Duchess of Saxe-Lauenburg in the eyes of the Holy Roman Emperor, the overlord of Saxe-Lauenburg, from 1689 until 1728; however, because her distant cousin George William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, conquered the duchy by force in 1689, she exercised no control over the territory, instead living in her manors in Bohemia. Despite his attempts at acquiescence, street fighting in opposition to the regime sprang up in August, in Livorno. [40] In 1731, the Powers gathered at Vienna to decide who would succeed Gian Gastone. Education was much neglected, and the only institutions of note were the universities of Pisa and Siena. In Leopold's years Italy was engulfed in popular rebellion, culminating in the Revolutions of 1848. Tuscany wis nominally a state o the Haly Roman Empire till the Treaty o Campo Formio in 1797.. References The United Provinces of Central Italy, a client state of the Kingdom of Sardinia, annexed Tuscany in 1859. Overview Policies People Government Economy Rank Trend Cards Civil Rights, Economy, & Political Freedom. Leghorn in the 15th century was only an inconsiderable port, and it was not until the middle of the 17th century that its liberality to the Jews, and other strangers, laid the foundation of its modern prosperity, and accomplished the transfer of Tuscan commerce to its port. All items (1) A The negotiations had been between Spain and France, and the Etrurian regent was kept entirely in the dark, only being informed that she would have to leave her young son's kingdom on 23 November 1807. Tuscany was divided into two main administrative districts: the stato nuovo (the new state) consisting of the former Republic of Siena, and the stato vecchio (the old state), the old Republic of Florence and her dependencies. [34]. The House of Medici was an Italian banking family and political dynasty that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the first half of the 15th century. Before the Roman times, the area of today's Tuscany was called Eturia, because of the Etruscan culture. Ferdinando, despite no longer being a cardinal, exercised much influence at successive Papal conclaves; elections which chose the Pope, the head of the Catholic Church. Category page.  Its ship-building is extensive, and vessels of war of 60 guns have been built in its slips. On 30 May 1808, Etruria was formally annexed to France. He was restored the same year by Austrian troops. [49]. Alessandro’s death did not terminate the Medici family’s power in Florence.A younger branch of the family, descendants of the Lorenzo who had been the brother of Cosimo the Elder, now came forward.Cosimo de’ Medici (1519–74), great-great-grandson of Lorenzo, became duke of Florence, then grand duke of Tuscany (1569), and reigned as Cosimo I. The Grand Duchy of. Maria Maddalena of Austria was Grand Duchess of Tuscany from the accession of her husband, Cosimo II, in 1609 until his death in 1621. He revamped the taxation and tariff system. Francis Stephen altered the laws of succession in 1763, when he declared his second son, Leopold, heir to the grand duchy. Cosimo married Marguerite Louise d'Orléans, a granddaughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. The order was permanently abolished in 1859 by the annexation of Tuscany to the Kingdom of Sardinia. The family originated in the Mugello region of Tuscany, and prospered gradually until it was able to fund the Medici Bank. Ferdinando's elder son, Cosimo, mounted the throne following his death. Tuscany was formally annexed to Sardinia in 1860, as a part of the unification of Italy, following a landslide referendum, in which 95% of voters approved. Leopold was succeeded by Ferdinand III. He was remember by his contemporaries as a man of culture and science, actively participating in the Accademia del Cimento, the first scientific society in Italy, formed by his younger brother, Leopoldo de' Medici. [15] He commanded the draining of the Tuscan marshlands, built a road network in Southern Tuscany, and cultivated trade in Livorno. He used his skill at choosing collaborators to put a young physician, Vincenzo Chiarugi, at its head. The last member of the Medici dynasty to be a leader of the order was Gian Gastone de Medici in 1737. Tuscany was governed by a viceroy, Marc de Beauvau-Craon, for his entire rule. (function(src){var a=document.createElement("script");a.type="text/javascript";a.async=true;a.src=src;var b=document.getElementsByTagName("script")[0];b.parentNode.insertBefore(a,b)})("//experience.tinypass.com/xbuilder/experience/load?aid=bYdYZQml5V"); Tuscany is the Etruria of the ancients. In February 1849, Leopold II had to abandon Tuscany to Republicans and sought refuge in the Neapolitan city of Gaeta. Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Order of Saint Stephen Breast Star First Class, in bronze gilt, with iron pin and glass arms, 72mmx72mm, circa 1810-20, of superb quality manufacture, in … [49] The Austrian garrison was withdrawn in 1855. Born in Graz, she was the youngest daughter of Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and his wife Maria Anna of Bavaria. [5], In 1569, Cosimo de' Medici had ruled the Duchy of Florence for 32 years. In thei… Cosimo I died in 1574 of apoplexy, leaving a stable and extremely prosperous Tuscany behind him, having been the longest ruling Medici yet. The people of Etruria were named Etruscans, and their complex culture was centered on numerous city-states, such as Veii. [19]. He is remembered today primarily as a patron of music. Florence, (Firenze la Bella,) the capital, is situated on the Arno, in a delightful valley. In the 12th and 13th centuries Tuscany was partitioned among the famous republics of Florence, Pisa, and Siena; but these were re-united in 1531 into one duchy, under Alexander Medici, in whose family it remained until its extinction in 1737, when it fell into the hands of the house of Austria. It formally created a hereditary monarchy, abolished the age-old signoria (elective government) and the office of gonfaloniere (titular ruler of Florence elected for a two-month term); in their place was the consigliere, a four-man council elected for a three-month term, headed by the "Duke of the Florentine Republic" (and later the Grand Duke of Tuscany). He was successively a Governor of Siena, cardinal and later the heir of the duchy of Montefeltro by right of his mother. He married Vittoria della Rovere, a first cousin, with whom he had two children who reached adulthood: the aforementioned Cosimo III, and Francesco Maria de' Medici, Duke of Rovere and Montefeltro, a cardinal. Marguerite Louise d'Orléans was a Princess of France who became Grand Duchess of Tuscany, as the wife of Grand Duke Cosimo III de' Medici. It was also known by the Greeks as "Tyrhennia" because of the Tyrhennian Sea. [11] The administration of the state was delegated to bureaucrats. These measures, which disturbed the deeply rooted convictions of his people and brought him into collision with the pope, were not successful. The Grand Duchy after 1847. Lombard Kingdom › Tuscany, Lombardic Duchy of › Tuscany, Duchy of • Tremissis (620-700) 1 Tremissis = 8 Siliqua • 3 Tremissis = 1 Soldius. The great square is spacious, and the Duomo or Cathedral, is a noble building. [15] He shifted Tuscany away from Habsburg [17] hegemony by marrying the first non-Habsburg candidate since Alessandro de' Medici, Duke of Florence, Christina of Lorraine, a granddaughter of Catherine de' Medici. Ferdinand IV's hypothetical reign didn't last long; the House of Habsburg-Lorraine was formally deposed by the National Assembly on 16 August 1859. In 1815 the Duchy of Lucca was carved out of Tuscany as a temporary compensation for the Bourbons of Parma, until in 1847 where it was returned to Tuscany. Leopold II (born Peter Leopold Joseph) (May 5, 1747 – March 1, 1792) was the penultimate Holy Roman Emperor from 1790 to 1792 and Grand-duke of Tuscany (Leopold I - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo-Lorena - Granduca di Toscana).He was the son of the Empress Maria Theresa and her … He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Christina of Lorraine. Ferdinand III resumed his rule, and died in 1824. Leghorn, (Livorno,) a fine modern city, on the shores of the Mediterranean, is one of the principal commercial towns of Europe, an advantage that it owes to its being a free port, where the productions of all countries can be landed and re-shipped without restriction. The Grand Duchy was then dissolved, and replaced by the Kingdom of Etruria under the house of Bourbon-Parma, in compensation for their loss of Duchy of Parma. … Tuscany is named after its pre-Roman inhabitants, the Etruscans. Tuscany was neutral during the War of the Spanish Succession, partly due to Tuscany's ramshackle military; a 1718 military review revealed that the army numbered less than 3,000 men, many of whom were infirm and elderly. La Leopolda Official anthem of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. document.getElementsByTagName("head")[0].appendChild(script); TDIH: November 30, 1786, The Grand Duchy of Tuscany, under Pietro Leopoldo I, becomes the first modern state to abolish the death penalty. ½ Siliqua - In the name of Heraclius, 610-641 (620-700) Silver • 0.25 g BMC Vandal# 41 . The improvements of the Maremma occasioned much of the extraordinary expenditures. Illustration: Grand … There were effectively only two dukes of the Republic of Florence, Alessandro de' Medici and Cosimo de' Medici, the second duke being elevated to Grand Duke of Tuscany, causing the Florentine title to become subordinate to the greater Tuscan title. Francis was reluctant to resign the duchy, but Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (Maria Theresa's father) stated that if he didn't relinquish his rights to Lorraine, he could not marry Maria Theresa. By the Treaty of Fontainebleau (27 October 1807), Etruria was to be annexed by France. Francis did not live in his Tuscan realm, and lived in the capital of his wife's realm, Vienna. An excellent musician himself, he attracted top musicians to Florence and thus made it an important musical center. [16] Ferdinando sponsored a Tuscan colony in America, with the intention of establishing a Tuscan settlement in the area of what is now French Guiana. Ferdinand was the son of the incumbent Grand Duke, and Grand Duchess Maria Louisa. Upon arrival, he abdicated in favour of his elder son, Ferdinand. During the minority of her son, Grand Duke Ferdinando, she and her mother-in-law acted as regents from 1621 to 1628. Cosimo also banned the clergy from holding administrative positions and promulgated laws of freedom of religion, which were unknown during his time. [49]. In the Middle Ages, it saw many invasions, but in the Renaissance period it helped lead Europe back to civilization. Historical Flags and Coats of arms of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany. Leopold II lent his support to the Kingdom of Sardinia in the Austro-Sardinian War. Gian Gastone was not as steadfast in negotiating Tuscany's future as his father was. [31] He imposed crippling taxes [32] while the country's population continued to decline. He is known for the "magnetic influence" he exercised on the last Medici Grand Duke of Tuscany, and for his relationship with him. [19] The Grand Duke alone had the prerogative to exploit the state's mineral and salt resources. [39] The proposal sank, and ultimately died with Cosimo in 1723. Edit. They reverted to the crown with the ascension of Gian Gastone. The interest rate was lowered by 0.75%. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was recreated in 1956, after the dissolution of the Italian Empire at the end of the Second Great War. [26] The exchequer was barely adequate to cover the state's current expenditure, resulting in a complete termination of banking operations for the Medici. An Order of Military Merit, Commander by Rothe in Gold, c. 1910 (Ordine Militare d'Italia). Former Italian state (1569–1801; 1815–1859). [4], Francis Stephen of Lorraine, a cognatic descendant of the Medici, succeeded the family and ascended the throne of his Medicean ancestors. A few years later Leopold undertook the project of building a new hospital, the Bonifacio. [5] The plan was about to be approved by the powers convened at Geertruidenberg when Cosimo abruptly added that if himself and his two sons predeceased his daughter, the Electress Palatine, she should succeed and the republic be re-instituted following her death. His 49-year rule was punctuated by the beginning of Tuscany's long economic decline, which was further exasperated by his successor, Cosimo III de' Medici. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. Soon after, Francis Stephen of Lorraine became heir to the Tuscan throne. He was forced out by the French during the French Revolutionary Wars, first in 1799, and then after the Treaty of Aranjuez (1801), becoming instead Elector of Salzburg, ruling the terri… [53] To be eligible, one had to be male and a noble. [5] Vittoria della Rovere brought the Duchies of Montefeltro and Rovere into the family in 1631, upon her death in 1694, they passed to her younger son, Francesco Maria de' Medici. Queen Catherine of France, though herself a Medici, viewed Cosimo with the utmost disdain. #ga-ad {display: none;} A grand duchy is a country or territory whose official head of state or ruler is a monarch bearing the title of grand duke or grand duchess.. Tuscany was ruled by the House of Medici and thrived bearing witness to unprecedented economic and military success under Cosimo I and his sons. Livorno-Wikipedia Tuscany was nominally a state of the Holy Roman Empire until the Treaty of Campo Formio in 1797. 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Francesco Maria de ' Medici was the penultimate ( sixth ) Medici Grand was... The Treaty of Turin it has reverted to Austria, the state 's mineral and salt resources again into territori-comunitativi...

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